This unconquerable country ruled by amphibian warriors never fade their courage to face the Spanish invader until it was illegally annexed by United States of America upon granting the Philippine independence to the Filipino in the 4th July 1946. This was after 10 years of transition given to the Filipino in the commonwealth government started in 1935 amidst vehement protests by the Tausug.
|The unification of Shaykh and the Sultan. Graphic: Yazir Rajim. Photo: Asree Sug|
This embarkation period is taking the old tradition of currency usage known as pisita or kusing dublun and pilak; that is to use the dinar and dirham as the legal currency of the country as part of the world Dar Al-Islam.
The first dated coins that can be assigned to the Muslims are copies of silver dirhams of the Sassanian Yezdigird III, struck during the Khalifate of Uthman, radiy’allahu anhu. These coins differ from the original ones in that an Arabic inscription is found in the obverse margins, normally reading “in the Name of Allah”. Since then the writing in Arabic of the Name of Allah and parts of Qur’an on the coins became a custom in all minting made by Muslims.
Under what was known as the coin standard of the Khalif Umar Ibn al-Khattab, the weight of 10 dirhams was equivalent to 7 dinars (mithqals).
In the year 75 (695 CE) the Khalifah Abdalmalik ordered Al-Hajjaj to mint the first dirhams, thus he established officially the standard of Umar Ibn al-Khattab. In the next year he ordered the dirhams to be minted in all the regions of the Dar al-Islam. He ordered that the coins be stamped with the sentence: “Allah is Unique, Allah is Eternal”. He ordered the removal of human figures and animals from the coins and that they be replaced with letters.
|Sample new designs. courtesy of Shaykh Umar Vadillo|
Allah says in the Qur’an:
“And amongst the People of the Book there are those who, if you were to entrust them with a treasure (qintar), he would return it to you. And amongst them is he who, if you were to entrust him with a dinar would not return it to you, unless you kept standing over him.” Qur’an (3: 75)
Qadi Abu Bakr Ibn al-Arabi, the greatest authority on Qur’anic Law wrote in his famous “Ahkam al-Qur’an” about this ayat:
“The benefit that can be taken from this is the prohibition of entrusting the People of the Book with goods”.
Qadi Abu Bakr said: “The question concerning entrusting property is legislated by the text of Qur’an.” This means that the ayat is a legal judgement of absolute validity and of the greatest importance to the deen.
Entrusting wealth to non-Muslims is not allowed, but furthermore, taking a non-Muslim as a partner outside Dar al-Islam (where we stand over them) is extremely restricted, because they might cheat or might use our wealth in forbidden transactions.
Since paper-money is a promise of payment, can it be permitted to trust the issuers while they hold the payment (our property) outside our jurisdiction? History has also demonstrated repeatedly that paper money has been a permanent instrument of default and cheating the Muslims. In addition, Islamic Law does not permit the use of a promise of payment as a medium of exchange.
According to Islamic Law…
“The Revelation undertook to mention them and attached many judgements to them, for example zakat, marriage, and hudud, etc., therefore within the Revelation they have to have a reality and specific measure for assessment [of zakat, etc.] upon which its judgements may be based rather than on the non-shari’i [other coins].
Know that there is consensus [ijma] since the beginning of Islam and the age of the Companions and the Followers that the dirham of the shari’ah is that of which ten weigh seven mithqals [weight of the dinar] of gold. . . The weight of a mithqal of gold is seventy-two grains of barley, so that the dirham which is seven-tenths of it is fifty and two-fifths grains. All these measurements are firmly established by consensus.” Ibn Khaldun, Al-Muqaddimah
2. They are used to pay zakat and dowry as they are requisite within Islamic Law.
3. They are used to buy and sell since they are a legitimate medium of exchange.
3.Using the Dinar & Dirham
From the beginning of Islam until today, the value of the Islamic bimetallic currency has remained surprisingly stable in relation to basic consumable goods:
In 1,400 years inflation is zero.
Could we say the same about the dollar or any other paper currency in the last 25 years?
In the long term the bimetallic currency has proved to be the most stable currency the world has ever seen. It has survived, despite all the attempts by governments to transform it into a symbolic currency by imposing a nominal value different from its weight.
Gold cannot be inflated by printing more of it; it cannot be devalued by government decree, and unlike paper currency it is an asset which does not depend upon anybody’s promise to pay.
Portability and anonymity of gold are both important, but the most significant fact is that gold is an asset that is no-one else´s liability.
|Sample Sulu coin design. Graphic by Asree Sug|
Gold is not like this. A piece of gold is independent of the financial system, and its worth is underwritten by 5,000 years of human experience.
Shaykh Muhammad Alish (1802-1881), the great Maliki Qadi, said that if you were to pay zakat with paper-money only its value as merchandise (‘ayn), that is, its value as paper can be accepted. Therefore, its nominal value is irrelevant as payment of zakat.
“If the Zakat was obligatory by considering its substance as merchandise, then the nisab would not be stipulated according to its value but according to its substance and its quantity, as is the case with silver, gold, grain or fruits. Since its substance [paper] is irrelevant [in value] in respect to the Zakat, then it should be treated as the copper, iron or other similar substances.”
Fatwa of Shaykh AlishPayment of Zakat is perfectly explained and regulated in the Islamic jurisprudence. For centuries when Islamic Law was enforced by a Caliph or an Amir, the Zakat was collected in gold and silver. When paper-money was being first introduced, during the last century by the colonial powers the traditional ulema rejected it as being opposed to Islamic Law.
“What is your judgement in respect to the paper with the stamp of the Sultan that circulates like the dinars and the dirhams? Is it obligatory to pay Zakat as if it was a coin of gold or silver, or merchandise, or not?”
I responded exactly in the following way:
“Praise belongs to Allah and blessing and peace upon our Master Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah.”
You will find an explanation by comparison with the copper coin or fulus with the stamp of the Sultan which is in circulation and for which no Zakat is paid since it does not belong to any of the categories mentioned. It says in the “Mudawwana”:
In the “At-Tiraz”, after mentioning that Abu Hanifa and Ash-Shafi’i obliged to pay Zakat for the fulus, [is stated that] since both affirm that the payment of Zakat is from value, and considering that Shafi’i has two contradictory opinions about the subject, the opinion of the school is that there is no obligation to pay Zakat for the fulus since there is no discrepancies about the fact that what counts with respect to the fulus is not its weight or its quantity but only it’s given value.
And Allah, ta’ala, is the Wisest. And may Allah bless and give peace to our Master Muhammad and his family. (Translated from the “Al-Fath Al-‘Ali Al-Maliki” pp. 164-165).
This Fatwa considers paper-money to be fulus, because it only represents money and does not have value as merchandise. It follows that since Zakat cannot be paid in fulus, which has no value as merchandise, it cannot be paid in paper-money, which value as weight of paper is null. On this basis, it becomes clear the urgent need to restore the use of the Dinar and the Dirham as payment of Zakat.
The return to the payment of zakat in gold and silver is an essential part of the reestablishment of Islam.
Ibn Rushd says in the Bidaya al-Mujtahid: ‘It is obvious from the law that the purpose of the prohibition of usury is prevention of the fraud that usury entails, and ensuring equity in transactions consisting in close approximation and equivalence between the goods exchanged.’
The essential nature of gold and silver currencies in Muslim society is emphasised too in the link between authority and currency. One of the seven responsibilities of the person in authority is to ensure the minting and purity of gold and silver coins. Al-Qurtubi in his Tafsir al-Jaami li Ahkaam al-Qur’an cites the first of the seven matters in which the leader of the community is to be obeyed as ‘the minting of dirhams and dinars.’
Thus tawhid manifests in the aqeeda but also in the myriad aspects of the mu’amulat: Allah has prescribed how to act in every situation. To deny that Allah and His Messenger have prescribed the necessity of the mint, the dinar and dirham, the market and just trade is to deny tawhid.
Ibn Khaldun points out in the Muqaddima that the degree of power of the ruler is reflected in the purity of the gold and silver coins minted under his authority: only the purity of the gold and silver can safeguard his rule. The impurity of the coins in a realm indicates the imminent collapse of the ruler.
Abu Bakr ibn Abi Maryam related from the Rasoul, may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, that ‘a time is certainly coming over mankind in which there will be nothing else which will be of use to pay other than a dinar and a dirham’.
The mint ensures the flourishing of trade, and as we know from the Messenger, sallallahu alayhi wa salam, nine tenths of wealth is from trade. As Umar Vadillo has pointed out in the End of Economics – in this society trade is forbidden and usury is permitted, the exact opposite of Allah’s ayat.
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- A hike of 25 miles to the village of Silangkan, formerly pirate town.
- A climb up Mt. Tumantangis, an extinct volcano – 3, 100 feet – distance, 8 miles.
- Fourteen-mile hike into the crater of the Bud Tukay volcano, whose crater is a lake. The Scouts cooked their meals and made camp on the banks of the lake inside the craters. Excitement was furnished by presence of the crocodiles in the lake.
- To the town of Maimbung on the coast, former residence of the Sultans of Sulu, and once the most important town in Sulu. 18 miles.
- A week’s sea-trip in the vintas. 150 miles.
- Hike of 20 miles to Parang, the largest Moro village in Sulu. Most of the houses are constructed over the water piles.
- A five-day hike to Timpuak Crater Lake and Bud Bagsak Volcano, Total distance over 100 miles. It was in Bud Bagsak that the battle of Bagsak Cota was fought in 1914. In it America and Filipino soldiers crushed the Moro warriors in a fierce two-day engagement in which hundreds of the Moros perished.
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pilihan untuk terus bebas seperti burung.. bebas yang cuma dapat dirasa, hanya terkadang dapat dilihat.. dan andai tidak terlihat.. itu tidak sepenting bila kepuasan mengatasi lagu cinta sedunia.. ahha.. dah mula merepek.. aku takkan berubah demi kamu….
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saudaraku..untunglah kamu kalau boleh bertindak lebih berani..kerana baiknya kita sama-sama akan dapat..untunglah kalau kamu berani suarakan isi hati..kerana baiknya kita sama-sama akan dapat..untunglah kamu kalau tak terus berkata yang tidak terkata i…
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|Jan Zeyryad with his metal-rap music gear.|
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